Pyronaridine–artesunate or dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine versus current first-line therapies for repeated treatment of uncomplicated malaria: a randomised, multicentre, open-label, longitudinal, controlled, phase 3b/4 trial

29 Mar 2018

Issaka Sagara, PhD, Abdoul Habib Beavogui, PhD, Issaka Zongo, PhD, Issiaka Soulama, PhD, Isabelle Borghini-Fuhrer, PhD, Bakary Fofana, MD, Aliou Traore, MSc, Nouhoum Diallo, MD, Hamadoun Diakite, MD, Amadou H Togo, MD, Sekou Koumare, MD, Mohamed Keita, MD, Daouda Camara, MSc, Anyirékun F Somé, PhD, Aboubacar S Coulibaly, MD, Oumar B Traore, MD, Souleymane Dama, PharmD, Siaka Goita, MD, Moussa Djimde, PharmD, Amadou Bamadio, MD, Niawanlou Dara, PharmD, Hamma Maiga, MD, Bouran Sidibe, MD, Francois Dao, MD, Moctar Coulibaly, MD, Mohamed Lamine Alhousseini, MD, Hamidou Niangaly, MD, Boubou Sangare, MD, Modibo Diarra, MD, Samba Coumare, MD, Moïse J T Kabore, MD, San Maurice Ouattara, MD, Aissata Barry, MD, Désiré Kargougou, MD, Amidou Diarra, PhD, Noelie Henry, MSc, Harouna Soré, MSc, Edith C Bougouma, PhD, Ismaila Thera, MSc, Yves D Compaore, MD, Colin J Sutherland, PhD, Malick Minkael Sylla, MD, Frederic Nikiema, MD, Mamadou Saliou Diallo, MD, Prof Alassane Dicko, PhD, Prof Stephane Picot, MD, Steffen Borrmann, MD, Stephan Duparc, MD, Robert M Miller, MD, Prof Ogobara K Doumbo, PhD, Jangsik Shin, MSc, Jose Pedro Gil, PhD, Prof Anders Björkman, PhD, Jean-Bosco Ouedraogo, PhD, Sodiomon B Sirima, PhD, Abdoulaye A Djimde, PhD 

The Lancet

DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30291-5

Summary

Background

Artemether–lumefantrine and artesunate–amodiaquine are used as first-line artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) in west Africa. Pyronaridine–artesunate and dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine are potentially useful for diversification of ACTs in this region, but further safety and efficacy data are required on malaria retreatment.

Methods

We did a randomised, multicentre, open-label, longitudinal, controlled phase 3b/4 clinical trial at seven tertiary centres in Burkina Faso, Guinea, and Mali. Eligible participants for first malaria episode and all retreatment episodes were adults and children aged 6 months and older with microscopically confirmed Plasmodium spp malaria (>0 to <200 000 parasites per μL of blood) and fever or history of fever in the previous 24 h. Individuals with severe or complicated malaria, an alanine aminotransferase concentration of more than twice the upper limit of normal, or a QTc greater than 450 ms were excluded. Using a randomisation list for each site, masked using sealed envelopes, participants were assigned to either pyronaridine–artesunate or dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine versus either artesunate–amodiaquine or artemether–lumefantrine. Block sizes were two or four if two treatments were allocated, and three or six if three treatments were allocated. Microscopists doing the parasitological assessments were masked to treatment allocation. All treatments were once-daily or twice-daily tablets or granules given orally and dosed by bodyweight over 3 days at the study centre. Patients were followed up as outpatients up to day 42, receiving clinical assessments on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42. Two primary outcomes were compared for non-inferiority: the 2-year incidence rate of all microscopically confirmed, complicated and uncomplicated malaria episodes in patients in the intention-to-treat population (ITT; non-inferiority margin 20%); and adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) in uncomplicated malaria across all episodes (unadjusted and PCR-adjusted for Plasmodium falciparum and unadjusted for other Plasmodiumspp) in the per-protocol population on days 28 and 42 (non-inferiority margin 5%). Safety was assessed in all participants who received one dose of study drug. This study is registered at the Pan African Clinical Trials Registry (PACTR201105000286876).

Findings

Between Oct 24, 2011, and Feb 1, 2016, we assigned 4710 eligible participants to the different treatment strategies: 1342 to pyronaridine–artesunate, 967 to artemether–lumefantrine, 1061 to artesunate–amodiaquine, and 1340 to dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine. The 2-year malaria incidence rate in the ITT population was non-inferior for pyronaridine–artesunate versus artemether–lumefantrine (1·77, 95% CI 1·63–1·93 vs 1·87, 1·72–2·03; rate ratio [RR] 1·05, 95% CI 0·94–1·17); and versus artesunate–amodiaquine (1·39, 95% CI 1·22–1·59 vs 1·35, 1·18–1·54; RR 0·97, 0·87–1·07). Similarly, this endpoint was non-inferior for dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine versus artemether–lumefantrine (1·16, 95% CI 1·01–1·34 vs 1·42 1·25–1·62; RR 1·22, 95% CI 1·06–1·41) and versus artesunate–amodiaquine (1·35, 1·21–1·51 vs 1·68, 1·51–1·88; RR 1·25, 1·02–1·50). For uncomplicated P falciparum malaria, PCR-adjusted ACPR was greater than 99·5% at day 28 and greater than 98·6% at day 42 for all ACTs; unadjusted ACPR was higher for pyronaridine–artesunate versus comparators at day 28 (96·9% vs 82·3% for artemether–lumefantrine and 95·6% vs 89·0% for artesunate–amodiaquine) and for dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine versus comparators (99·5% vs81·6% for artemether–lumefantrine and 99·0% vs 89·0% for artesunate–amodiaquine). For non-falciparum species, unadjusted ACPR was greater than 98% for all study drugs at day 28 and at day 42 was greater than 83% except for artemether–lumefantrine against Plasmodium ovale (in ten [62·5%] of 16 patients) and against Plasmodium malariae (in nine [75·0%] of 12 patients). Nine deaths occurred during the study, none of which were related to the study treatment. Mostly mild transient elevations in transaminases occurred with pyronaridine–artesunate versus comparators, and mild QTcF prolongation with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine versus comparators.

Interpretation

Pyronaridine–artesunate and dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine treatment and retreatment of malaria were well tolerated with efficacy that was non-inferior to first-line ACTs. Greater access to these efficacious treatments in west Africa is justified.

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