Persistent Submicroscopic Plasmodium falciparum Parasitemia 72 Hours after Treatment with Artemether-Lumefantrine Predicts 42-Day Treatment Failure in Mali and Burkina Faso

16 Jul 2021

Beshir KB, Diallo N, Somé FA, Sombie S, Zongo I, Fofana B, Traore A, Dama S, Bamadio A, Traore OB, Coulibaly SA, Maurice OS, Diarra A, Kaboré JM, Kodio A, Togo AH, Dara N, Coulibaly M, Dao F, Nikiema F, Compaore YD, Kabore NT, Barry N, Soulama I, Sagara I, Sirima SB, Ouédraogo JB, Djimde A, Sutherland CJ

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
PMID: 34060901

Doi: 10.1128/AAC.00873-21

Photo: Ugutmen_iStock

Abstract

A recent randomized controlled trial, the WANECAM (West African Network for Clinical Trials of Antimalarial Drugs) trial, conducted at seven centers in West Africa, found that artemether-lumefantrine, artesunate-amodiaquine, pyronaridine-artesunate, and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine all displayed good efficacy. However, artemether-lumefantrine was associated with a shorter interval between clinical episodes than the other regimens. In a further comparison of these therapies, we identified cases of persisting submicroscopic parasitemia by quantitative PCR (qPCR) at 72 h posttreatment among WANECAM participants from 5 sites in Mali and Burkina Faso, and we compared treatment outcomes for this group to those with complete parasite clearance by 72 h. Among 552 evaluable patients, 17.7% had qPCR-detectable parasitemia at 72 h during their first treatment episode. This proportion varied among sites, reflecting differences in malaria transmission intensity, but did not differ among pooled drug treatment groups. However, patients who received artemether-lumefantrine and were qPCR positive at 72 h were significantly more likely to have microscopically detectable recurrent Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia by day 42 than those receiving other regimens and experienced, on average, a shorter interval before the next clinical episode. Haplotypes of and were also evaluated in persisting parasites. These data identify a possible threat to the parasitological efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine in West Africa, over a decade since it was first introduced on a large scale.

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