Several promising antimalarial drugs are currently being tested in human trials, such as artefenomel, cipargamin, ferroquine and ganaplacide. Many of these compounds were identified using high throughput screens against a single species of human malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, under the assumption that effectiveness against all malaria species will be similar, as has been observed for other antimalarial drugs. However, using our in vitro adapted line, we demonstrated recently that P. knowlesi is significantly less susceptible than P. falciparum to some new antimalarial drugs (e.g., cipargamin and DSM265), and more susceptible to others (e.g., ganaplacide). There is, therefore, an urgent need to determine the susceptibility profile of all human malaria species to the current generation of antimalarial compounds. We obtained ex vivo malaria samples from travellers returning to the United Kingdom and, using the [H]hypoxanthine incorporation method, compared susceptibility to select established and experimental antimalarial agents among all major human infective Plasmodium species. We demonstrate that P. malariae and P. ovale spp. are significantly less susceptible than P. falciparum to cipargamin, DSM265 and AN13762, but are more susceptible to ganaplacide. Preliminary ex vivo data from single isolates of P. knowlesi and P. vivax demonstrate a similar profile. Our findings highlight the need to ensure cross species susceptibility profiles are determined early in the drug development pipeline. Our data can also be used to inform further drug development, and illustrate the utility of the P. knowlesi in vitro model as a scalable approach for predicting the drug susceptibility of non-falciparum malaria species in general.
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