Chlorproguanil-dapsone-artesunate versus chlorproguanil-dapsone: a randomized, double-blind, phase III trial in African children, adolescents, and adults with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria

18 Dec 2009

Alfred B. Tiono, Alassane Dicko, Dennis A. Ndububa, Tsiri Agbenyega, Simon Pitmang, Jacob Awobusuyi, Allan Pamba, Stephan Duparc, Li-Ean Goh, Emma Harrell, Nick Carter, Stephen A. Ward, Brian Greenwood and Peter A. Winstanley

The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.2009.09-0351

Abstract

This multi-center, randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, double-dummy study compared the efficacy and safety of chlorproguanil-dapsone-artesunate (CDA) and chlorproguanil-dapsone (CPG-DDS) in the treatment of falciparum malaria in Africa (Burkina Faso, Ghana, Mali, Nigeria). Six hundred patients (>or= 1 year of age) received CDA 2.0/2.5/4.0 mg/kg, and 292 CPG-DDS 2.0/2.5 mg/kg, once daily for 3 days. Day 28 parasitologic cure rate (polymerase chain reaction [PCR]-corrected, per-protocol population) was 89.1% (416/467) for CDA, non-inferior but also superior to CPG-DDS, 83.0% (176/212) (treatment difference 6.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.3, 11.9). Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) genotype was available for 844/892 (95%) patients. Occurrences of a composite hemoglobin safety endpoint (hemoglobin drop >or= 40 g/L or >or= 40% versus baseline, hemoglobin < 50 g/L, or blood transfusion) were CDA 13/44 (30%), CPG-DDS 7/24 (29%) in G6PD-deficient patients versus CDA 4/448 (< 1%), CPG-DDS 6/221 (3%) in G6PD-normal patients. No deaths occurred. CDA was more efficacious than CPG-DDS. However, the hemolytic potential in G6PD-deficient patients does not support further development of CDA.

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