Glossary

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  • Parasite

    Any organism that lives in or on another organism without benefiting the host organism.1

  • Parasite clearance time

    The time taken for asexual parasites to no longer be detectable microscopically after the first dose of an antimalarial has been given.7

  • Parasitemia

    The presence of parasites in the blood. The term can also be used to express the quantity of parasites in the blood (e.g., "a parasitemia of 2%").1

  • Pharmacokinetics

    the branch of pharmacology concerned with the movement of drugs within the body;4 the processes (in a living organism) of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of a drug or vaccine.5

  • Phase I trials

    Initial studies to determine the metabolism and pharmacologic actions of drugs in humans, the side effects associated with increasing doses, and to gain early evidence of effectiveness; may include healthy participants and/or patients.5

  • Phase II trials

    Controlled clinical studies conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the drug for a particular indication or indications in patients with the disease or condition under study and to determine the common short-term side effects and risks.5

  • Phase III trials

    Expanded controlled and uncontrolled trials after preliminary evidence suggesting effectiveness of the drug has been obtained, and are intended to gather additional information to evaluate the overall benefit-risk relationship of the drug and provide and adequate basis for physician labeling.5

  • Phase IV trials

    Post-marketing studies to delineate additional information including the drug’s risks, benefits, and optimal use.5

  • Plasmodium

    The genus of the parasite that causes malaria. The genus includes four species that infect humans: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae.1

  • Preclinical development

    Refers to the testing of experimental drugs in the test tube or in animals - the testing that occurs before trials in humans may be carried out.5 Next step, see Clinical development

  • Protocol

    A study plan on which all clinical trials for a particular drug are based. The plan is carefully designed to safeguard the health of the participants as well as answer specific research questions. A protocol describes what types of people may participate in the trial; the schedule of tests, procedures, medications, and dosages; and the length of the study. While in a clinical trial, participants following a protocol are seen regularly by the research staff to monitor their health and to determine the safety and effectiveness of their treatment.5