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  • Dose-ranging study

    A clinical trial in which two or more doses of an agent (such as a drug) are tested against each other to determine which dose works best and is least harmful. 5

  • Drug

    a substance intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease. 2

  • Drug discovery process

    Main steps include:

    • identification of disease target that accounts for symptoms (target identification);
    • target validation - evaluation of whether eliminating the target will lead to a modification of the progression of the disease to the benefit of patients;
    • screening of compound libraries either by computer modelling (in silico) to see which molecules fit into the structure of the target or biologically, using high-throughput screening;
    • lead identification - identification of a series of compounds whose chemical structures appear to have greatest impact on the target;
    • lead optimization- identification a subset of more promising compounds, using chemistry and/or computing, on the basis of their apparent efficacy and safety;
    • selection of candidates for preclinical and clinical development.3

    Next step, see "Preclinical development" in the Glossary

  • Drug resistance

    Drug resistance is the result of microbes changing in ways that reduce or eliminate the effectiveness of drugs, chemicals, or other agents to cure or prevent infections.1