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  • Case investigation

    Follow-up of passively detected, lab-confirmed cases (with characterization by age, sex, residence, recent travel that may have led to infection etc.) and visit to their households and neighborhoods to seek and treat other cases and potentially provide prophylaxis.

  • Causal prophylactic activity

    Effect of antimalarial drugs that prevent sporozoite infection or replication of parasites in the liver, in contrast to suppressive prophylaxis in which replication of parasites in the blood is prevented.7

  • Cerebral malaria

    A complication of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in which infected red blood cells obstruct blood circulation in the small blood vessels in the brain. When cerebral malaria is present, the disease is classified as severe malaria.1

  • Clinical development

    (as of a drug) step in drug development where on the basis of pre-clinical toxicology and animal study data, a compound developer applies for IND (investigational new drug) status from the FDA (in US) or equivalent elsewhere in order to obtain right to test drugs on humans.3 Next step: see Phase I

  • Clinical trials

    are used to determine whether new drugs or treatments are both safe and effective. Carefully conducted clinical trials are the fastest and safest way to find treatments that work in people. Trials are in four phases: Phase I tests a new drug or treatment in a small group; Phase II expands the study to a larger group of people; Phase III expands the study to an even larger group of people; and Phase IV takes place after the drug or treatment has been licensed and marketed. 5

  • Congenital malaria

    Malaria in a newborn or infant, transmitted from the mother at birth.1